MZS:Pain management

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Miscellaneous Herbs

  • Kratom
  • Opioid
  • Dissociative
  • Kava kava
  • GABAergic
  • Cannabinoid
  • Cat's claw
  • Dissociative
  • Cannabis
  • Cannabinoid
  • Opioid


  • THC
  • CBD
  • CBN

Muscle relaxants

  • Methocarbamol
  • Baclofen
  • Gabapentin


  • Naproxen
  • Ibuprofen


Opiates can have drastically varying effects depending on which receptors they interact with, for example.

  • δ-opioid receptor
- Agonism is thought to be useful for treatment of chronic pain with minimal psychoactive effects
  • μ-opioid receptor
- Agonism is helpful with more temporary acute pain, additionally causing euphoria. Negative side effects include nausea and itching
  • κ-opioid receptor
- κ-opioid agonism has a highly potent analgesic effect as well as suppressing the itching side effect of μ-opioid, though negative side effects include dysphoria, hallucinations, and dissociation. It is known to be a component in causing many the effects associated chronic stress.[1]
- conversely antagonism has shown promise in suppressing many of the negative symptoms of opiate withdrawal through antidepressant and anxiolytic effects.[2] As such κ-opioid antagonists may have use in treating central central sensitization caused by chronic pain.

NMDA antagonists

NMDA antagonists are often used for clinical anesthesia and also appear in some herbs commonly used as DIY remedies (Kratom, Cat's claw[3]). That said more powerful agents may not be viable as a long term solution due to their hallucinogenic effects at large enough doses[4], but research has begun to show a lingering antidepressant effect after larger doses which may lead to their use as novel therapeutic agents in a clinical setting.[5]


Some nootropics have shown efficacy in preventing and reversing neuropathic pain in rats, and this effect may extend to humans - as well as other compounds of the same classes (choline sources and racetams).


Depression and chronic pain are known to mutually cause similar negative neuroplastic changes to the central nervous system, leading to common the common long term effect of hypersensitivity to pain (central sensitization). Due to this common source these symptoms can often be treated together using antidepressants.[8]

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy has also shown some efficacy in the treatment of central sensitization which may be partially implicit in the musculoskeletal pain associated wit EDS.[9][10]


  1. The Dysphoric Component of Stress Is Encoded by Activation of the Dynorphin κ-Opioid System |
  2. Selective kappa opioid antagonists for treatment of addiction, are we there yet? |
  3. Kratom and Other Mitragynines |
  4. PsychonautWiki > Dissociatives > Subjective effects |
  5. The Role of Ketamine in Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Systematic Review |
  6. Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine administration prevents peripheral neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats. |
  7. Analgesic effect of piracetam on peripheral neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve in rats. |
  8. Common mechanisms of pain and depression: are antidepressants also analgesics? |
  9. Central sensitization as the mechanism underlying pain in joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type. |
  10. Cognitive - Behavioral Therapy in Central Sensitivity Syndromes. |