Flutamide

From Mad Gender Science!
Jump to: navigation, search
Scribble.png

This is a note!

It contains the early rough scribblings of an article, which you could grow to a more thorough page, or simply deranged science musings!
If you are on the hunt for incomplete articles to fill in you can check the notes category for a list of all articles that have this banner.


Flutamide is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen. It has been administered to transgender women in a number of studies/publications.[1][2][3] It is used for the treatment of hirsutism at dosages ranging from 62.5 mg/day to 500 mg/day and both alone and in combination with oral contraceptives.[4] The overall quality of the evidence for hirsutism is regarded as moderate.[5] Flutamide may be more effective than other antiandrogens like spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, and finasteride for this indication.[5]

Flutamide has a relatively high risk of elevated liver enzymes and hepatotoxicity and has been associated with many cases of severe hepatotoxicity, including deaths.[6][7][8][9][10] The risk is substantially higher than with other nonsteroidal antiandrogens like bicalutamide and nilutamide.[9] Because of its high risk of hepatotoxicity, flutamide has been recommended against for the treatment of androgen-dependent conditions like acne and hirsutism in cisgender women.[7][5][11]

Low or ultra-low doses of flutamide have been reported to lack hepatotoxicity.[12][13][14][15] However, other studies have had very different findings.[16][17][18] In addition, many case reports of severe hepatotoxicity at low or ultra-low doses exist, including deaths.[19][8][20][21]

Studies[edit]

Cisgender women[edit]

It has been evaluated in the treatment of androgen-dependent conditions like acne, seborrhea, hirsutism, alopecia, and hyperandrogenism (e.g., due to polycystic ovary syndrome) in cisgender women in over 100 clinical studies.[22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88][89][90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][12][100][101][102][13][14][103][104][105][106][107][108][15][109][110][111][112][113][16][114][115][116][117][118][18][119][120]

References[edit]

  1. Giusti, M., Falivene, M. R., Carraro, A., Cuttica, C. M., Valenti, S., & Giordano, G. (1995). The effect of non-steroidal antiandrogen flutamide on luteinizing hormone pulsatile secretion in male-to-female transsexual subjects. Journal of endocrinological investigation, 18(6), 420-426.
  2. Falivene, M. R., Cuttica, C. M., Valenti, S., & Guido, R. (1995). Androgen receptor blockade with flutamide increases GH secretion in male-to-female transsexuals. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 18, 56-56.
  3. Valenti, S., Fazzuoli, L., & Giusti, M. (2003). Circulating nitric oxide levels increase after anti-androgen treatment in male-to-female transsexuals. Journal of endocrinological investigation, 26(6), 522-526.
  4. Generali, J. A., & Cada, D. J. (2014). Flutamide: hirsutism in women. Hospital pharmacy, 49(6), 517.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Somani, N., & Turvy, D. (2014). Hirsutism: an evidence-based treatment update. American journal of clinical dermatology, 15(3), 247-266.
  6. Wysowski, D. K., & Fourcroy, J. L. (1996). Flutamide hepatotoxicity. The Journal of urology, 155(1), 209-212.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Giorgetti, R., di Muzio, M., Giorgetti, A., Girolami, D., Borgia, L., & Tagliabracci, A. (2017). Flutamide-induced hepatotoxicity: ethical and scientific issues. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 21(1 Suppl), 69-77.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Brahm, J., Brahm, M., Segovia, R., Latorre, R., Zapata, R., Poniachik, J., ... & Contreras, L. (2011). Acute and fulminant hepatitis induced by flutamide: case series report and review of the literature. Annals of hepatology, 10(1), 93-98.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Thole, Z., Manso, G., Salgueiro, E., Revuelta, P., & Hidalgo, A. (2004). Hepatotoxicity induced by antiandrogens: a review of the literature. Urologia internationalis, 73(4), 289-295.
  10. García, C. M., Andrade, R. J., Lucena, M. I., Sánchez, M. H., Fernandez, M. C., Ferrer, T., ... & Montero, J. L. (2001). Flutamide-induced hepatotoxicity: report of a case series. Revista española de enfermedades digestivas: organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva, 93(7), 423-432.
  11. Schmidt, T. H., & Shinkai, K. (2015). Evidence-based approach to cutaneous hyperandrogenism in women. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 73(4), 672-690.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Ibanez, L., Jaramillo, A., Ferrer, A., & de Zegher, F. (2005). Absence of hepatotoxicity after long-term, low-dose flutamide in hyperandrogenic girls and young women. Human Reproduction, 20(7), 1833-1836.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Legro, R. S. (2006). Long-term, low-dose flutamide does not cause hepatotoxicity in hyperandrogenic women. Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2(4), 188-189.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Calaf, J., Lopez, E., Millet, A., Alcaniz, J., Fortuny, A., Vidal, O., ... & Espinos, J. J. (2007). Long-term efficacy and tolerability of flutamide combined with oral contraception in moderate to severe hirsutism: a 12-month, double-blind, parallel clinical trial. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 92(9), 3446-3452.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Dikensoy, E., Balat, O., Pence, S., Akcali, C., & Cicek, H. (2009). The risk of hepatotoxicity during long-term and low-dose flutamide treatment in hirsutism. Archives of gynecology and obstetrics, 279(3), 321-327.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Paradisi, R., Fabbri, R., Porcu, E., Battaglia, C., Seracchioli, R., & Venturoli, S. (2011). Retrospective, observational study on the effects and tolerability of flutamide in a large population of patients with acne and seborrhea over a 15-year period. Gynecological Endocrinology, 27(10), 823-829.
  17. Bruni, V., Peruzzi, E., Dei, M., Nannini, S., Seravalli, V., Sisti, G., & Fambrini, M. (2012). Hepatotoxicity with low-and ultralow-dose flutamide: a surveillance study on 203 hyperandrogenic young females. Fertility and sterility, 98(4), 1047-1052.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Castelo-Branco, C., Hernández-Angeles, C., Alvarez-Olivares, L., & Balasch, J. (2016). Long-term satisfaction and tolerability with low-dose flutamide: a 20-year surveillance study on 120 hyperandrogenic women. Gynecological Endocrinology, 32(9), 723-727.
  19. Castelo-Branco, C., & Del Pino, M. (2009). Hepatotoxicity during low-dose flutamide treatment for hirsutism. Gynecological Endocrinology, 25(7), 419-422.
  20. Osculati, A., & Castiglioni, C. (2006). Fatal liver complications with flutamide. The Lancet, 367(9517), 1140-1141.
  21. Amorim, M. D. F. D. D., Amorim, W. P. D. D., Duques, P., Amorim, P. D. D., & Vasconcelos, J. R. D. (2005). Flutamide-induced hepatotoxicity during treatment of acne: a case report. Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia, 80(4), 381-384.
  22. Lyons, F., & Shuster, S. (1982). Sex difference in response of the human sebaceous gland to topical flutamide. British Journal of Dermatology, 107(6), 697-699.
  23. Cusan, L., Dupont, A., Bélanger, A., Tremblay, R. R., Manhes, G., & Labrie, F. (1990). Treatment of hirsutism with the pure antiandrogen flutamide. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 23(3), 462-469.
  24. Motta, T., Maggi, G., Perra, M., Azzolari, E., Casazza, S., & D'Alberton, A. (1991). Flutamide in the treatment of hirsutism. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 36(2), 155-157.
  25. Marcondes, J. A., Minnani, S. L., Luthold, W. W., Wajchenberg, B. L., Samojlik, E., & Kirschner, M. A. (1992). Treatment of hirsutism in women with flutamide. Fertility and sterility, 57(3), 543-547.
  26. Fruzzetti, F., De Lorenzo, D., Ricci, C., & Fioretti, P. (1993). Clinical and endocrine effects of flutamide in hyperandrogenic women. Fertility and sterility, 60(5), 806-813.
  27. Couzinet, B., Pholsena, M., Young, J., & Schaison, G. (1993). The impact of a pure anti‐androgen (flutamide) on LH, FSH, androgens and clinical status in idiopathic hirsutism. Clinical endocrinology, 39(2), 157-162.
  28. Sir-Petermann, T., Rabenbauer, B., & Wildt, L. (1993). Endocrinology: The effect of flutamide on pulsatile gonadotrophin secretion in hyperandrogenaemic women. Human Reproduction, 8(11), 1807-1812.
  29. Cusan, L., Dupont, A., Cossette, M., & Labrie, F. (1993). Flutamide in the treatment of female androgenic alopecia. Can J Dermatol, 5, 421-427.
  30. Tremblay, R. R. (1993). Compromise in the treatment of hirsutism with flutamide. In vivo (Athens, Greece), 7(6A), 549-551.
  31. Grimaldi, F., Proto, G., & Bertolissi, F. (1993). Flutamide—effects and side effects. Fertility and sterility, 59(4), 937.
  32. Marugo, M., Bernasconi, D., Meozzi, M., Del Monte, P., Zino, V., Primarolo, P., & Badaracco, B. (1994). The use of flutamide in the management of hirsutism. Journal of endocrinological investigation, 17(3), 195-199.
  33. Erenus, M., Gürbüz, O., Durmuşoğlu, F., Ergun, T., & Pekin, S. (1993). The efficacy of flutamide in the treatment of hirsutism. Marmara Medical Journal, 6(1).
  34. Cesur, V., Kamel, N., Uysal, A. R., Erdogan, G., & Baskal, N. (1994). The use of antiandrogen flutamide in the treatment of hirsutism. Endocrine journal, 41(5), 573-577.
  35. Ciotta, L., Cianci, A., Marletta, E., Pisana, L., & Palumbo, G. (1994). Treatment of hirsutism with flutamide and a low-dosage oral contraceptive in polycystic ovarian disease patients. Fertility and sterility, 62(6), 1129-1135.
  36. Cusan, L., Dupont, A., Gomez, J. L., Tremblay, R. R., & Labrie, F. (1994). Comparison of flutamide and spironolactone in the treatment of hirsutism: a randomized controlled trial. Fertility and sterility, 61(2), 281-287.
  37. Erenus, M., Gürbüz, O., Durmuşoğlu, F., Demirçay, Z., & Pekin, S. (1994). Comparison of the efficacy of spironolactone versus flutamide in the treatment of hirsutism. Fertility and sterility, 61(4), 613-616.
  38. Howe, R. S., Chow, R. P., & Stevens, C. L. (1994). Use of flutamide for self-induced androgen excess. A case report. The Journal of reproductive medicine, 39(10), 838-840.
  39. Motta, T., Maggi, G., & D’Alberton, A. (1994). Flutamide and hirsutism. Journal of endocrinological investigation, 17(8), 673-673.
  40. Dodin, S., Faure, N., Cédrin, I., Mechain, C., Turcot‐Lemay, L., Guy, J., & Lemay, A. (1995). Clinical efficacy and safety of low‐dose flutamide alone and combined with an oral contraceptive for the treatment of idiopathic hirsutism. Clinical endocrinology, 43(5), 575-582.
  41. Moghetti, P., Castello, R., Negri, C., Tosi, F., Magnani, C. M., Fontanarosa, M. C., ... & Muggeo, M. (1995). Flutamide in the treatment of hirsutism: long-term clinical effects, endocrine changes, and androgen receptor behavior. Fertility and sterility, 64(3), 511-517.
  42. Pucci, E., Genazzani, A. D., Monzani, F., Lippi, F., Angelini, F., Gargani, M., ... & Genazzani, A. R. (1995). Prolonged treatment of hirsutism with flutamide alone in patients affected by polycystic ovary syndrome. Gynecological Endocrinology, 9(3), 221-228.
  43. Diamanti-Kandarakis, E., Mitrakou, A., Hennes, M. M., Platanissiotis, D., Kaklas, N., Spina, J., ... & Raptis, S. (1995). Insulin sensitivity and antiandrogenic therapy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Metabolism, 44(4), 525-531.
  44. Müderris, İ. İ., Bayram, F., Şahin, Y., Keleştimur, F., Tutuş, A., & Ayata, D. (1996). The efficacy of 250mg/day flutamide in the treatment of patients with hirsutism. Fertility and sterility, 66(2), 220-222.
  45. Grigoriou, O., Papadias, C., Konidaris, S., Antoniou, G., Kavakitsos, P., & Giannikos, L. (1996). Comparison of flutamide and cyproterone acetate in the treatment of hirsutism: a randomized controlled trial. Gynecological Endocrinology, 10(2), 119-123.
  46. Moghetti, P. A. O. L. O., Tosi, F. L. A. V. I. A., Castello, R. O. B. E. R. T. O., Magnani, C. M., Negri, C. A. R. L. O., Brun, E., ... & Muggeo, M. I. C. H. E. L. E. (1996). The insulin resistance in women with hyperandrogenism is partially reversed by antiandrogen treatment: evidence that androgens impair insulin action in women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 81(3), 952-960.
  47. Müderris, İ. I., Bayram, F., Şahin, Y., & Kelestimur, F. (1997). A comparison between two doses of flutamide (250 mg/d and 500 mg/d) in the treatment of hirsutism. Fertility and sterility, 68(4), 644-647.
  48. Falsetti, L., Fusco, D. D., Eleftheriou, G., & Rosina, B. (1997). Treatment of hirsutism by finasteride and flutamide in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Gynecological Endocrinology, 11(4), 251-257.
  49. Bertelloni, S., Baroncelli, G. I., Sorrentino, M. C., Costa, S., Battini, R., & Saggese, G. (1997). Androgen-receptor blockade does not impair bone mineral density in adolescent females. Calcified tissue international, 61(1), 1-5.
  50. Zemtsov, A., & Wilson, L. (1997). Successful treatment of hirsutism in HAIR-AN syndrome using flutamide, spironolactone, and birth control therapy. Archives of dermatology, 133(4), 431-433.
  51. Gwiezdzinski, Z., Urbanowski, S., & Szelemej, R. (1997). 2.5% solution of flutamide (a nonsteroidal antiandrogen) in the topical treatment of acne vulgaris. A double-blind randomized study. Journal of dermatological treatment, 8(2), 75-78.
  52. Falsetti, L., De Fusco, D., & Rosina, B. (1997). Finasteride and flutamide in the treatment of hirsutism. Minerva ginecologica, 49(10), 463-468.
  53. Kaya, F., Seçkin, D., & Turanlı, A. Y. (1997). Comparison of the efficacies of cyproterone acetate, spironolactone and flutamide in the treatment of hirsutism. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 1001(9), S150.
  54. De Leo, V., Lanzetta, D., D’Antona, D., la Marca, A., & Morgante, G. (1998). Hormonal effects of flutamide in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 83(1), 99-102.
  55. Diamanti-Kandarakis, E., Mitrakou, A., Raptis, S., Tolis, G., & Duleba, A. J. (1998). The effect of a pure antiandrogen receptor blocker, flutamide, on the lipid profile in the polycystic ovary syndrome. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 83(8), 2699-2705.
  56. De Leo, V., La Marca, A., Lanzetta, D., Cariello, P. L., D'antona, D., & Morgante, G. (1998). Effects of flutamide on pituitary and adrenal responsiveness to corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF). Clinical endocrinology, 49(1), 85-89.
  57. Somani, V. K., Sucharita, V., Sharma, V. K., & Sita, V. N. V. L. (1998). The efficacy of flutamide, an antiandrogen in idiopathic hirsutism. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology, 64(1), 17.
  58. Müderris, I. I., & Bayram, F. (1999). Clinical efficacy of lower dose flutamide 125 mg/day in the treatment of hirsutism. Journal of endocrinological investigation, 22(3), 165-168.
  59. Fruzzetti, F., Bersi, C., Parrini, D., Ricci, C., & Genazzani, A. R. (1999). Treatment of hirsutism: comparisons between different antiandrogens with central and peripheral effects. Fertility and sterility, 71(3), 445-451.
  60. Venturoli, S., Marescalchi, O., Colombo, F. M., Macrelli, S., Ravaioli, B., Bagnoli, A., ... & Flamigni, C. (1999). A prospective randomized trial comparing low dose flutamide, finasteride, ketoconazole, and cyproterone acetate-estrogen regimens in the treatment of hirsutism. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 84(4), 1304-1310.
  61. Paoletti, A. M., Cagnacci, A., Orrù, M., Ajossa, S., Guerriero, S., & Melis, G. B. (1999). Treatment with flutamide improves hyperinsulinemia in women with idiopathic hirsutism. Fertility and sterility, 72(3), 448-453.
  62. Falsetti, L., Gambera, A., Legrenzi, L., Iacobello, C., & Bugari, G. (1999). Comparison of finasteride versus flutamide in the treatment of hirsutism. European journal of endocrinology, 141(4), 361-367.
  63. Falsetti, L., & Gambera, A. (1999). Comparison of finasteride and flutamide in the treatment of idiopathic hirsutism. Fertility and sterility, 72(1), 41-46.
  64. Wang, H. S., Wang, T. H., & Soong, Y. K. (1999). Low dose flutamide in the treatment of acne vulgaris in women with or without oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea. Changgeng Yi Xue Za Zhi, 22(3), 423-432.
  65. Pazos, F., Escobar-Morreale, H. F., Balsa, J., Sancho, J. M., & Varela, C. (1999). Prospective randomized study comparing the long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist triptorelin, flutamide, and cyproterone acetate, used in combination with an oral contraceptive, in the treatment of hirsutism. Fertility and sterility, 71(1), 122-128.
  66. Moghetti, P., Castello, R., Zamberlan, N., Rossini, M., Gatti, D., Negri, C., ... & Adami, S. (1999). Spironolactone, but not flutamide, administration prevents bone loss in hyperandrogenic women treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 84(4), 1250-1254.
  67. Yücelten, D., Erenus, M., Gürbüz, O., & Durmuşoğlu, F. (1999). Recurrence rate of hirsutism after 3 different antiandrogen therapies. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 41(1), 64-68.
  68. Dalton, M. (1999). Flutamide was more effective than finasteride for idiopathic hirsutism. Evidence-based Obstetrics & Gynecology, 1(4), 112.
  69. BAHCECİ, M., TUZCU, A., DURSUN, M., ERTEM, M., & YÜKSELEN, V. (1999). The Effects of Flutamide on Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity, Hirsutism and Gonadotropins in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 29(6), 677-682.
  70. Müderris, I. I., Bayram, F., & Güven, M. (2000). A prospective, randomized trial comparing flutamide (250 mg/d) and finasteride (5 mg/d) in the treatment of hirsutism. Fertility and sterility, 73(5), 984-987.
  71. Moghetti, P., Tosi, F., Tosti, A., Negri, C., Misciali, C., Perrone, F., ... & Castello, R. (2000). Comparison of spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride efficacy in the treatment of hirsutism: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 85(1), 89-94.
  72. Eagleson, C. A., Gingrich, M. B., Pastor, C. L., Arora, T. K., Burt, C. M., Evans, W. S., & Marshall, J. C. (2000). Polycystic ovarian syndrome: evidence that flutamide restores sensitivity of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator to inhibition by estradiol and progesterone. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 85(11), 4047-4052.
  73. Leo, V. D., Fulghesu, A. M., La Marca, A., Morgante, G., Pasqui, L., Talluri, B., ... & Caruso, A. (2000). Hormonal and clinical effects of GnRH agonist alone, or in combination with a combined oral contraceptive or flutamide in women with severe hirsutism. Gynecological endocrinology, 14(6), 411-416.
  74. Ibanez, L., Potau, N., Marcos, M. V., & de Zegher, F. (2000). Treatment of hirsutism, hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhea, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinism in nonobese, adolescent girls: effect of flutamide. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 85(9), 3251-3255.
  75. Müderris, I. I., Bayram, F., & Güven, M. (2000). Treatment of hirsutism with lowest-dose flutamide (62.5 mg/day). Gynecological endocrinology, 14(1), 38-41.
  76. Negri, C., Tosi, F., Dorizzi, R., Fortunato, A., Spiazzi, G. G., Muggeo, M., ... & Moghetti, P. (2000). Antiandrogen drugs lower serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in hirsute subjects: evidence that serum PSA is a marker of androgen action in women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 85(1), 81-84.
  77. De, L. (2000). V, Fulghesu AM, la MA, Morgante G, Pasqui L, Talluri B, et al. Hormonal and clinical effects of GnRH agonist alone, or in combination with a combined oral contraceptive or flutamide in women with severe hirsutism. Gynecol Endocrinol, 14(6), 411-6.
  78. Venturoli, S., Bagnoli, A., Colombo, F. M., Ravaioli, B., Vianello, F., & Mancini, F. (2000). The efficacy of a 125 mg/day regimen of flutamide in maintaining the clinical results in hirsute women. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 70, C51.
  79. Venturoli, S., Paradisi, R., Bagnoli, A., Colombo, F. M., Ravaioli, B., Vianello, F., ... & Seracchioli, R. (2001). Low-dose flutamide (125 mg/day) as maintenance therapy in the treatment of hirsutism. Hormone Research in Paediatrics, 56(1-2), 25-31.
  80. László, F. A., Toth, S., Kocsis, J., Pávó, I., & Szécsi, M. (2001). Testosterone-secreting gonadotropin-responsive adrenal adenoma and its treatment with the antiandrogen flutamide. Journal of endocrinological investigation, 24(8), 622-627.
  81. Carmina, E., & Lobo, R. A. (2002). A comparison of the relative efficacy of antiandrogens for the treatment of acne in hyperandrogenic women. Clinical endocrinology, 57(2), 231-234.
  82. Ajossa, S., Guerriero, S., Paoletti, A. M., Orrù, M., & Melis, G. B. (2002). The antiandrogenic effect of flutamide improves uterine perfusion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertility and sterility, 77(6), 1136-1140.
  83. Taner, C., İnal, M., Basoglu, Ö., Onoglu, A., Karanfil, C., Tınar, Ş., & İspahi, Ç. (2002). Comparison of the clinical efficacy and safety of flutamide versus flutamide plus an oral contraceptive in the treatment of hirsutism. Gynecologic and obstetric investigation, 54(2), 105-108.
  84. Ibanez, L., Valls, C., Ferrer, A., Ong, K., Dunger, D. B., & de Zegher, F. (2002). Additive effects of insulin-sensitizing and anti-androgen treatment in young, nonobese women with hyperinsulinism, hyperandrogenism, dyslipidemia, and anovulation. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 87(6), 2870-2874.
  85. Ibanez, L., & de Zegher, F. (2003). Low‐dose combination of flutamide, metformin and an oral contraceptive for non‐obese, young women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Human Reproduction, 18(1), 57-60.
  86. Ibanez, L., & de Zegher, F. (2003). Flutamide-metformin therapy to reduce fat mass in hyperinsulinemic ovarian hyperandrogenism: effects in adolescents and in women on third-generation oral contraception. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 88(10), 4720-4724.
  87. Sahin, I., Serter, R., Karakurt, F., Demirbas, B., Guler, S., Culha, C., ... & Aral, Y. (2003). Leptin levels increase during flutamide therapy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Hormone Research in Paediatrics, 60(5), 232-236.
  88. Ibanez, L., Ong, K., Ferrer, A., Amin, R., Dunger, D., & de Zegher, F. (2003). Low-dose flutamide-metformin therapy reverses insulin resistance and reduces fat mass in nonobese adolescents with ovarian hyperandrogenism. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 88(6), 2600-2606.
  89. Gambineri, A., Pelusi, C., Genghini, S., Morselli‐Labate, A. M., Cacciari, M., Pagotto, U., & Pasquali, R. (2004). Effect of flutamide and metformin administered alone or in combination in dieting obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Clinical endocrinology, 60(2), 241-249.
  90. Ibanez, L., & de Zegher, F. (2004). Ethinylestradiol-drospirenone, flutamide-metformin, or both for adolescents and women with hyperinsulinemic hyperandrogenism: opposite effects on adipocytokines and body adiposity. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89(4), 1592-1597.
  91. Sahin, I., Serter, R., Karakurt, F., Demirbas, B., Culha, C., Taskapan, C., ... & Aral, Y. (2004). Metformin versus flutamide in the treatment of metabolic consequences of non-obese young women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized prospective study. Gynecological endocrinology, 19(3), 115-124.
  92. Bahceci, M., Bilge, M., Tuzcu, A., Tuzcu, S., & Bahceci, S. (2004). Serum prostate specific antigen levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and the effect of flutamide+ desogestrel/ethinyl estradiol combination. Journal of endocrinological investigation, 27(4), 353-356.
  93. Ibanez, L., Valls, C., Cabré, S., & de Zegher, F. (2004). Flutamide-metformin plus ethinylestradiol-drospirenone for lipolysis and antiatherogenesis in young women with ovarian hyperandrogenism: the key role of early, low-dose flutamide. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89(9), 4716-4720.
  94. Vrbikova, J., Hill, M., Dvorakova, K., Stanicka, S., Vondra, K., & Starka, L. (2004). Flutamide suppresses adrenal steroidogenesis but has no effect on insulin resistance and secretion and lipid levels in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Gynecologic and obstetric investigation, 58(1), 36.
  95. Ibanez, L., & de Zegher, F. (2004). Flutamide–metformin plus an oral contraceptive (OC) for young women with polycystic ovary syndrome: switch from third-to fourth-generation OC reduces body adiposity. Human Reproduction, 19(8), 1725-1727.
  96. Devoto, E., & Aravena, L. (2004). Effectiveness of flutamide alone or combined with oral contraceptives in the treatment of hirsutism in women. Revista medica de Chile, 132(7), 845-852.
  97. Inal, M. M., Yildirim, Y., & Taner, C. E. (2005). Comparison of the clinical efficacy of flutamide and spironolactone plus Diane 35 in the treatment of idiopathic hirsutism: a randomized controlled study. Fertility and sterility, 84(6), 1693-1697.
  98. Ibanez, L., Jaramillo, A. M., Ferrer, A., & de Zegher, F. (2005). High neutrophil count in girls and women with hyperinsulinaemic hyperandrogenism: normalization with metformin and flutamide overcomes the aggravation by oral contraception. Human Reproduction, 20(9), 2457-2462.
  99. Ibanez, L., & Zegher, F. D. (2005). Flutamide-metformin plus ethinylestradiol-drospirenone for lipolysis and antiatherogenesis in young women with ovarian hyperandrogenism: the key role of metformin at the start and after more than one year of therapy. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 90(1), 39-43.
  100. Hero, M., Jänne, O. A., Näntö-Salonen, K., Dunkel, L., & Raivio, T. (2005). Circulating antiandrogenic activity in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia during peroral flutamide treatment. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 90(9), 5141-5145.
  101. Evans, J. (2005). Low-Dose Flutamide May Help Treat Female Refractory Acne. Family Practice News, 35(17), 42-42.
  102. Gambineri, A., Patton, L., Vaccina, A., Cacciari, M., Morselli-Labate, A. M., Cavazza, C., ... & Pasquali, R. (2006). Treatment with flutamide, metformin, and their combination added to a hypocaloric diet in overweight-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, 12-month, placebo-controlled study. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 91(10), 3970-3980.
  103. Ibanez, L., López-Bermejo, A., del Rio, L., Enríquez, G., Valls, C., & de Zegher, F. (2007). Combined low-dose pioglitazone, flutamide, and metformin for women with androgen excess. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 92(5), 1710-1714.
  104. Karakurt, F., Sahin, I., Güler, S., Demirbas, B., Culha, C., Serter, R., ... & Bavbek, N. (2008). Comparison of the clinical efficacy of flutamide and spironolactone plus ethinyloestradiol/cyproterone acetate in the treatment of hirsutism: a randomised controlled study. Advances in therapy, 25(4), 321-328.
  105. Ibanez, L., López‐Bermejo, A., Díaz, M., Enríquez, G., Valls, C., & De Zegher, F. (2008). Pioglitazone (7· 5 mg/day) added to flutamide–metformin in women with androgen excess: additional increments of visfatin and high molecular weight adiponectin. Clinical endocrinology, 68(2), 317-320.
  106. Pizzo, A., Borrielli, I., Mastroeni, M. T., Fattori, A., Dugo, C., Dugo, N., & Dinatale, A. (2008). Low-dose flutamide in the treatment of hyperandrogenism in adolescents. Minerva pediatrica, 60(6), 1357-1366.
  107. Dungan, J. S. (2008). Long-Term Efficacy and Tolerability of Flutamide Combined with Oral Contraception in Moderate to Severe Hirsutism: A 12-Month, Double-Blind, Parallel Clinical Trial Calaf J, for the Spanish Working Group for Hirsutism (Hosp de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona; et al) J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92: 3446-3452, 2007. Year Book of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, 2008, 142-144.
  108. Unluhizarci, K., Ozel, D., Tanriverdi, F., Karaca, Z., & Kelestimur, F. (2009). A comparison between finasteride, flutamide, and finasteride plus flutamide combination in the treatment of hirsutism. Journal of endocrinological investigation, 32(1), 37-40.
  109. Castelo-Branco, C., Moyano, D., Gómez, O., & Balasch, J. (2009). Long-term safety and tolerability of flutamide for the treatment of hirsutism. Fertility and sterility, 91(4), 1183-1188.
  110. Ibanez, L., López‐Bermejo, A., Díaz, M., Enríquez, G., Del Río, L., & De Zegher, F. (2009). Low‐dose pioglitazone and low‐dose flutamide added to metformin and oestro‐progestagens for hyperinsulinaemic women with androgen excess: add‐on benefits disclosed by a randomized double‐placebo study over 24 months. Clinical endocrinology, 71(3), 351-357.
  111. Ibanez, L., Lopez-Bermejo, A., Díaz, M., Enríquez, G., Del Río, L., & De Zegher, F. (2010). Low-dose pioglitazone, flutamide, metformin plus an estro-progestagen for non-obese young women with polycystic ovary syndrome: increasing efficacy and persistent safety over 30 months. Gynecological Endocrinology, 26(12), 869-873.
  112. Esmaeilzadeh, S., Ghorbani, L., Sharbatdaran, M., Bijani, A., & Sajadi, P. (2010). Comparison of flutamide and metformin in overweight-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome following a hypocaloric dieting.
  113. de Zegher, F., & Ibanez, L. (2011). Flutamide for androgen excess: low dose is best. Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology, 24(2), e43-e44.
  114. Paradisi, R., Porcu, E., Fabbri, R., Seracchioli, R., Battaglia, C., & Venturoli, S. (2011). Prospective cohort study on the effects and tolerability of flutamide in patients with female pattern hair loss. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 45(4), 469-475.
  115. Adalatkhah, H., Pourfarzi, F., & Sadeghi-Bazargani, H. (2011). Flutamide versus a cyproterone acetate-ethinyl estradiol combination in moderate acne: a pilot randomized clinical trial. Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dermatology, 4, 117.
  116. Ibanez, L., Diaz, M., Sebastiani, G., Sánchez-Infantes, D., Salvador, C., Lopez-Bermejo, A., & de Zegher, F. (2011). Treatment of androgen excess in adolescent girls: ethinylestradiol-cyproteroneacetate versus low-dose pioglitazone-flutamide-metformin. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 96(11), 3361-3366.
  117. Yazdabadi, A., & Sinclair, R. (2011). Treatment of female pattern hair loss with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide. Australasian Journal of Dermatology, 52(2), 132-134.
  118. Amiri, M., Golsorkhtabaramiri, M., Esmaeilzadeh, S., Ghofrani, F., Bijani, A., Ghorbani, L., & Delavar, M. A. (2014). Effect of metformin and flutamide on anthropometric indices and laboratory tests in obese/overweight PCOS women under hypocaloric diet. Journal of reproduction & infertility, 15(4), 205.
  119. Chiriac, A., Foia, L., Urma, A., Pinteala, T., & Chiriac, A. E. (2016). Flutamide treatment in severe acne in women-still controversial.
  120. Fulghesu, A. M., Melis, F., Murru, G., Canu, E., & Melis, G. B. (2017). Very low dose of flutamide in the treatment of hyperandrogenism. Gynecological Endocrinology, 1-5.